Soya Bean Oil
History of soybeans is as old as over 2000 years before birth of Christ. Chinese cultivators are said to recognize the real health value of the bean. Chinese Emperor Shen-nong declared it as one of the five sacred crops. He compiled earliest known medical treatise, which is translated as The Medical Bible of Yellow Emperor. He researched the healing properties of over 100 plants and considered the soyabean as most significant. It has been an important food ingredient of China, Manchuria, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia over centuries. Though it originated from South West Asia, now it is grown all over the world. It is becoming increasingly popular in Europe and US among health and diet conscious people. Today, it is the world’s most cultivated oilseed. The oil content in Soyabean is between 17-18% and it has very high content of protein. Owing to high protein content soyabean meal has varied usage.
In India, Madhya Pradesh tops the list of soyabean producing states. Nearly 88% of soyabean is produced in the state. Main varieties grown are Punjab-1, Braig, Ankur, Gaurav and Jawahar.
Soyabean is a 100 – 120 day crop. It could be grown under rain fed conditionsprovided a good amount of soil moisture is ensured at the germination,vegetative growth and pod setting stages. The optimum temperature range for Soya bean cultivation is 20 ‐ 30 C with short day length. However plantingshould be avoided at cooler temperatures during winters. Loamy soil with pH of6.0 – 6.5 is suitable for its cultivation, but the field should be well drained. Thussoybeans not only provides protein rich balanced food for various category ofpeople of various age groups but also the safe, healthy, nutritive food as analternative to number of food material.
As per second advance estimates, estimated production of soybean in India during 2017-18 isrevised downwards from 12.22 million tonnes to 11.39 million tonnes from an area of 10.56million hectares.Final estimates for production of soybean during 2016-17 also revised downwards from 13.79million tonnes to 13.16 million tonnes from an area of 11.32 million hectares.Due to uneven distribution of rainfall and drought conditions at critical stages of crop growth inmajor soybean growing districts, yield is expected to decline (by 7% over the previous year)and thus, the total production (by 13.4%) of soybean for kharif 2017 crop.Domestic consumption of soybean meal/ oil cake is fast increasing in India. As per USDA data,domestic consumption of soybean oil cake is growing at an annual compound growth rate of8.6 per cent for the period 2010 to 2017.
As per Agricultural Market Information System of FAO, global soybean production estimatesfor 2017-18 revised downwards to 336.8 million tonnes from 345.9 million tonnes projectedduring December, 2017 from an area of 125.66 million hectares.
Export of soybean meals/ deoiled cakes during the period April 2017 to January 2018 hascrossed 2016-17 year export figures (up by 29% in quantity and 19% in value terms). Major export destinations of soybean meal from India during the period April-January, 2017-18 were Bangladesh, Germany, France, Nepal, USA, Japan, Vietnam, Korea RP, Romania andMyanmar, and Sri Lanka. Export of soybean (HS 120190) jumped up from 180797 tonnes during 2016-17 to 240982 tonnes during ten months of financial year 2017-18. About 58 per cent of soybean exported from India was destined to USA, 25 per cent to Canada and 6 per cent to Belgium. Similarly,India imported about 2893011 tonnes of soybean crude oil valued at Rs. 15098.3 Croresduring April- Jan, 2017-18. Nearly 79 per cent of soybean crude oil is sourced from Argentina,15.3 per cent from Brazil and 5.5 per cent from Paraguay.