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Oil & Seeds

castor seed

Castor Seed

Castor (RicinuscommunisL.) is cultivated around the world because of the commercial importance of its oil. India is the world’s largest producer of castor seed and meets most of the global demand for castor oil. India produces 10 to 12 lakh tonnes of castor seed annually, and accounting for more than 60% of the entire global production.

In India, Castor planting season is during July or August and harvested aroundDecember or January. The seedpods are dried, de‐podded and brought to the marketyards during December or January for trading.Traditionally, castor is a Kharif season crop. Sowing of castor with onset of monsoon isfound most beneficial in rainfed condition. However, sowing can be done up to firstfortnight of August without reduction in yield under irrigated condition. Gujarat is the leading state in castor seeds production in India followed by Rajasthanand Andhra Pradesh. Castor oil is obtained by pressing the seeds, followed by solvent extraction of thepressed cake. Castor Oil’s application range is very wide. The usages

Castor oil is obtained by pressing the seeds, followed by solvent extraction of thepressed cake. Castor Oil’s application range is very wide. The usages range from cosmetics, paints,synthetic resins & varnishes, to the areas of national security involving engineeringplastics, jet engine lubricants and polymers for electronics and telecommunications.Castor oil and its derivatives find major application in soaps, lubricants, grease,hydraulic brake fluids and polymers and perfumery products.

The major factors influencing the prices are:

  • Production
  • Monsoon
  • Yield in other countries
  • Prices of substitute oils
  • Domestic and export demand
  • Seasonal factors
  • Stock availability
  • Development of new uses of the oil


India is the largest exporter of castor oil and has a market share of about 85-90%. China and Brazil are the second and third largest producers of castor oil in the global market contributing around 5-7% of the world exports. During the FY2016-17, Indian castor oil exports declined by 11% Y/Y to 4.85 lakh tons due to subdued demand from the international market as it was traded at higher prices on expectation of weaker output.However, in the first six months of FY2017-18, total castor oil exported was around 2.70 lakh tons, up by 3% Y/Y on higher consumption demand from US, Netherland, Russia and Japan.

Castor Seed Contract Specification

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mustard seed

Rape/Mustard Seed

India is one of the largest rapeseed‐mustard growing countries in the world,occupying the first position in area and second position in Production after China.The world production of Rapeseed/Mustard has been increasing at a rapid rate inseveral countries largely in response to the continuing increase in demand foredible oils and its products.

In India, Rajasthan occupies the first place both in terms of cultivated area and production accounting for over 45% followed by Madhya Pradesh with 13%. Haryana and Uttar Pradesh occupy the third place contributing for 11% of total production each. Thus, the top four states produce about 80% of total rapeseed & mustard production in the country. Major domestic spot markets areSriganganagar, Jaipur, Kota, Alwar, CharkhidadriandDelhi.

The sowing of the seeds is done after the harvest of the Kharif crop in the month ofNovember and is mainly cultivated on irrigated land. Rape/Mustard seed is a rabi crop i.e. the plantation of the Rape/Mustardseed is done in the winter

The sowing of the seeds is done after the harvest of the Kharif crop in the month ofNovember and is mainly cultivated on irrigated land. Rape/Mustard seed is a rabi crop i.e. the plantation of the Rape/Mustardseed is done in the winter (October, November and December) and that is why it ispreceded by light showers. These showers come at the onset of the sowingseason. The light showers allow right quantity of moisture to be left in the soil,thereby enabling flowering of the crop. The flowering of the crop takes place in themonths of November, December, January and February and the harvest season isin the months of March, April and May.

Rapeseed oil is obtained from crushed rapeseed bypressing or extraction. It is a light yellow to brownish yellow oil. Rapeseed oil isone of the most important vegetable oils in India.Rape oil is obtained from the seeds of several species of Brassica, and the oil fromdifferent species is not distinguished on the market, since all have similarproperties. Rapeseed oil is similar to mustard seed oil.Oil is extracted by rolling the seed to fracture the seed coat and rupture the oilcells.For centuries, humans and animals could not consume rapeseed oil, as it had higherucic acid content. However, rapeseed varieties are now available for cultivationwhich has lower erucic acid content.

Total production of Rapeseed-Mustard in India including Rabi and kharif crop (Kharif Toria cropcultivated in UP) for the year 2016-17 is 72,29,000tonnes. Out of this, estimated total production of Rapeseed-Mustard Rabi crop in India for the year 2016-17 is 71,09,000 tonnes with an average yield of 1069kg/hectare.

Rapeseed‐mustard crops are important forthe Indian economy, since India imports large quantities of edible oils despitehaving the largest area of cultivated oilseeds in the world. In the recent past, thecountry has grown to become one of the major vegetable oil importers due to adecline in oilseeds production and a steady fall in international prices. China, Indiaand Japan are considered as net importers in the international Rapeseed Oil trade.

Rape/Mustard Seed Contract Specification

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soya oil

Soya Bean Oil

History of soybeans is as old as over 2000 years before birth of Christ. Chinese cultivators are said to recognize the real health value of the bean. Chinese Emperor Shen-nong declared it as one of the five sacred crops. He compiled earliest known medical treatise, which is translated as The Medical Bible of Yellow Emperor. He researched the healing properties of over 100 plants and considered the soyabean as most significant. It has been an important food ingredient of China, Manchuria, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia over centuries. Though it originated from South West Asia, now it is grown all over the world. It is becoming increasingly popular in Europe and US among health and diet conscious people. Today, it is the world’s most cultivated oilseed. The oil content in Soyabean is between 17-18% and it has very high content of protein. Owing to high protein content soyabean meal has varied usage.

In India, Madhya Pradesh tops the list of soyabean producing states. Nearly 88% of soyabean is produced in the state. Main varieties grown are Punjab-1, Braig, Ankur, Gaurav and Jawahar.

Soyabean is a 100 – 120 day crop. It could be grown under rain fed conditionsprovided a good amount of soil moisture is ensured at the germination,vegetative growth and pod setting stages. The optimum temperature range for Soya bean cultivation is 20 ‐ 30 C with short day length. However plantingshould be avoided at cooler temperatures during winters. Loamy soil with pH of6.0 – 6.5 is suitable for its cultivation, but the field should be well drained. Thussoybeans not only provides protein rich balanced food for various category ofpeople of various age groups but also the safe, healthy, nutritive food as analternative to number of food material.

As per second advance estimates, estimated production of soybean in India during 2017-18 isrevised downwards from 12.22 million tonnes to 11.39 million tonnes from an area of 10.56million hectares.Final estimates for production of soybean during 2016-17 also revised downwards from 13.79million tonnes to 13.16 million tonnes from an area of 11.32 million hectares.Due to uneven distribution of rainfall and drought conditions at critical stages of crop growth inmajor soybean growing districts, yield is expected to decline (by 7% over the previous year)and thus, the total production (by 13.4%) of soybean for kharif 2017 crop.Domestic consumption of soybean meal/ oil cake is fast increasing in India. As per USDA data,domestic consumption of soybean oil cake is growing at an annual compound growth rate of8.6 per cent for the period 2010 to 2017.

As per Agricultural Market Information System of FAO, global soybean production estimatesfor 2017-18 revised downwards to 336.8 million tonnes from 345.9 million tonnes projectedduring December, 2017 from an area of 125.66 million hectares.

Export of soybean meals/ deoiled cakes during the period April 2017 to January 2018 hascrossed 2016-17 year export figures (up by 29% in quantity and 19% in value terms). Major export destinations of soybean meal from India during the period April-January, 2017-18 were Bangladesh, Germany, France, Nepal, USA, Japan, Vietnam, Korea RP, Romania andMyanmar, and Sri Lanka. Export of soybean (HS 120190) jumped up from 180797 tonnes during 2016-17 to 240982 tonnes during ten months of financial year 2017-18. About 58 per cent of soybean exported from India was destined to USA, 25 per cent to Canada and 6 per cent to Belgium. Similarly,India imported about 2893011 tonnes of soybean crude oil valued at Rs. 15098.3 Croresduring April- Jan, 2017-18. Nearly 79 per cent of soybean crude oil is sourced from Argentina,15.3 per cent from Brazil and 5.5 per cent from Paraguay.

Soya Bean Oil Contract Specification

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