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Black Pepper

Black pepper is the dried, mature but unripe berry (fruit) of Piper nigrum, a branching vine or climbing, perennial shrub. It is the most important spice of India and world due to its day‐to‐day use. Black pepper, green pepper and white peppercorns are actually derived from the same fruit (Piper nigrum); the difference in their color is a reflection of varying stages of development and processing methods.India is the largest consumer of pepper in the world and the second largest producer after Vietnam.

It is mostlyfound in hot and moist parts of Southern India. Kerala alone contributes about 90% of the total production in India followed by Karnataka. The rest is contributed by Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry and Andaman & Nicobar.Within Kerala, Calicut, Cannanore, Kottayam and Idukki districts account for 67 % of the total acreage.Major markets of pepper in India are Cochin,Alleppey, Calicut,Nedumangad, Konni, Adoor, Pala, Alwaye, Thodupuzha,Chalakudy, Badagara, Cannanore, Tellicherry, Kanjangad, Kasargod and Mumbai.

There are different varieties of Black pepper and their names are originated fromthe localities where they grown or from ports through which they are beingexported, e.g. Malabar, Alleppey (Kerala), Lampang, Saigon and Singapore.Majority of the cultivated varieties are monoecious i.e. male and female flowersfound in the same spike. Peppers differ slightly in their physical and chemicalcharacteristics; colour, size, shape, flavour and bite.In plain area, the harvesting season extends from November to January and in hillsfrom January to March. But in Kerala plants flower in the month of May‐June. The crop takes about 6‐8 months fromflowering to harvest.

Pepper price variations are influenced by many factors like international prices,domestic production and consumption; and export – import policies. It has been estimated that pepper production in India is likely to remain at 60000 tonnes for current season.

Black Pepper Contract Specification

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Cardamom also known as cardamon or cardamum is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to the Indian subcontinent and Indonesia. It is widely used as a herbal spice and is added in various sweet dishes to provide a strong aroma & flavor. In Ayurveda it is considered to be a very useful & effective medicine. There are two main types of cardamom: true or green cardamom and black or large cardamom.

Cardamom plants normally start bearing two years after planting. In most of the areas the peak period of harvest is during October-November. Picking is carried out at an interval of 15-25 days. It is generally cultivated in the tropical regions of the world. Major producing countries of cardamom in the world are Guatemala, India, Sri Lanka, Iran, Tanzania etc. However, major production is concentrated in Guatemala and India. Although there are no official estimates available, world cardamom production is estimated to be over 55000 MT. Of the total, Guatemala accounts for nearly 30000 MT.

In India, Kerala is largest producer of small cardamom followed by Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. It has been estimated that current year’s output will declined sharply by 40% to 60% from production of previous year due to food in Kerala. In previous year production was stood at 26000 tonnes (including small and large cardamom). For the year 2017-18, export of small and large cardamom has been estimated at 6400 tonnes. Average monthly price of cardamom remained at Rs 1194 per kg (as per Spice Board of India).

Cardamom Contract Specification

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